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Kuriles are natural border between sea of Okhotsk and Pacific ocean, простилаясь on 1200 km from Kamchatka to an island of Hokkaido. The most significant islands of the Big Kuril ridge are Paramushir, Onekotan, Simushir, Urup, Iturup, Kunashir. The structure of the Small Kuril ridge includes an island of Shikotan and group of small islands.


The Kuril ridge is based on volcanic formations. Presence is connected with activity of volcanoes on islands of numerous hot wells and strongly mineralized sources also. Some sources are considered curative and on the occupied islands are used for treatment. The gases allocated with volcanoes on cracks, often also are rich with sulphurous steams.




History of Kuriles

The glory of opening and initial development of Kuriles belongs to Russian travelers and colonists.
For the first time on existence of islands of the Kuril ridge it has been informed in the end of a XVII-th century, but already to the middle of XVIII century have been removed on a card and all islands are described almost. Further the decision on settlement creation on an island of Uruppu for the purpose of development of trade with Japan was accepted. However Japan didn't wish to fasten trade relations with Russian the neighbor and has started to counteract development of southern islands in every possible way. In 1800 Japan self-capture colonized a southern part of Kuriles belonging to Russia.


In the XIX-th century beginning trade relations between Russia and Japan start to develop favorably, thus last didn't lose hope to become the individual owner of all Kuril ridge. In order to avoid complication of trade relations with Japan, Russian government suggests to divide possession of Kuriles, and in 1855 all southern islands to an island of Uruppu enter structure of Japan. In 1875 in exchange for individual possession of Sakhalin which is at that point in time in joint possession of Russia and Japan, Russia gives to Japan all Kuriles.
In 1945, on conditions of the Potsdam agreement, all ridge of Kuriles has been returned in structure of Soviet Union.




Flora and fauna

The vegetation of the water environment is plentifully presented by thickets of the sea kale used for many purposes, including for a food.
The island vegetation is rather various, owing to the big extent of an island ridge from the north to the south.



On the most northern islands the big areas are occupied by bogs and tundra plants, on average islands of a ridge there are groves вязолистной birches with an underbrush from the Kuril bamboo, and a thicket of a shrubby alder, in the south of Kuriles already widespread coniferous woods from a fir-tree хоккайдинской and firs Sakhalin, there is a yew and a maple.






The basic population sea приостровья are the fur seal, a sea beaver (otter) and the dolphins meeting many in waters of southern islands. Kuriles have such large whales, as a cachalot, a financial shaft or сельдяной a whale.
From fresh-water fishes in the rivers and lakes many various breeds of a trout and the salmon fishes, directing in the summer on spawning, are found set of invertebrates: crabs, sea hedgehogs, mollusks, starfishes and so on.



Surprises riches and a variety of the birds living on the Kuril ridge. On islands near the seas nest petrels, sometimes large albatrosses, and also seagulls, sandpipers, morwennols. On fresh reservoirs of islands various kinds of ducks lodge.
It is not connected with reservoirs there live different kinds of wood birds (bullfinches, woodpeckers, grosbeaks, porridge, a creeper, a titmouse), northern taiga birds (black woodpeckers, tap dances), on islands of a southern half of ridge live a blue flycatcher, a Japanese long-tailed titmouse, Japanese has sung. Widespread field larks, wagtails, rural swallows, and on безлесных tops of mountains of northern and average islands the tundra partridge nests. From birds of prey it is possible to meet кречета, a falcon-sapsana, a hawk, a huge sea eagle, and also some kinds of owls. Also during island flight visit birds of the extreme north. In total on islands is to 170 kinds of birds.
The fauna of Kuriles is presented by a brown bear, black fox, living in woods, and also an otter, a sable, the squirrel, a hare and set of rodents meeting in a southern part of a ridge. On islands it is not enough reptiles, they are found only on southern islands.



It is a lot of kinds of insects meet on southern islands, and on average and northern islands they practically are absent.


 Well and certainly Kurilian bobtails!



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